A newly-launched museum about the history of mental illness will go up against the 164-year-old Victoria and Albert in the competition for Museum of the Year.
They are on a shortlist of five competing for the Art Fund Prize for Museum of the Year 2016, which has been announced.
Those in the running are the V&A , the Bethlem Museum of the Mind also in London, the Arnolfini in Bristol, Jupiter Artland in West Lothian and the York Art Gallery.
The Museum of the Mind began its life as the Bethlem Royal Hospital Archives and Museum, but its collections were moved into a newly-refurbished art deco building in 2015.
Based at the UK's oldest psychiatric institution - Bethlem Royal Hospital - the museum was launched in March 2015 by the artist Grayson Perry. It attracted more than 11,000 visitors in 2015, a major increase from 1,298 visitors to the old museum in 2014.
It showcases work by artists who have suffered from mental health problems, including former patients William Kurelek, Richard Dadd and Louis Wain.
Devices including iron shackles and padded 19th century restraining garments are on display, as well as a pair of statues by Caius Gabriel Cibber known as Raving and Melancholy Madness, from the gates of the 17th century Bethlem Hospital.
The museum will face competition from the V&A, which attracted nearly 3.9 million visitors in 2015, the highest in its history.
Alexander McQueen: Savage Beauty became the V&A's best-selling exhibition, attracting almost half a million visitors.
Museums will be judged on whether they have shown "exceptional imagination, innovation and achievement", according to organisers.
The judges are curator and art historian Gus Casely-Hayford, BBC arts editor Will Gompertz, Durham University professor Ludmilla Jordanova, artist Cornelia Parker, and director of the Art Fund Stephen Deuchar.
Mr Deuchar said: "Each one of these five museums is outstanding - not just for the collections they display, but for the people who work there, and the visitors whose lives they can change.
"Whether reaching audiences of thousands or millions, the best museums turn objects into culture, put audiences at the heart of their work, and engage with issues of the moment.
"This shortlist shows why and how UK museums lead the world."
The awards ceremony will take place on July 6 and the Natural History Museum.